格林希尔少儿英语求围观:BBC评选出世界最伟大10家博物馆

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Museed’Orsay, France

奥赛美术馆,法国

Standing on the Left Bank of the Seine,this venerable Paris museum was opened in 1986 in a former Beaux-Arts railwaystation and hotel. The layout uses its previous incarnation to full effect –galleries cluster around the grand nave and light streams in through itssweeping glass roof. Conceived to bridge the gap between the collections of theLouvre Museum and the Pompidou Centre, it focuses on late 19th and early 20thCentury art and houses the world’s largest collection of impressionist andpost-impressionist paintings.

这个古老的巴黎博物馆屹立于塞纳河左岸,成立于1986。其前身是美术馆火车站酒店。布局充分展现了其前身的辉煌——画廊集中在大中堂,阳光通过巨大的玻璃屋顶。人们人们把它当作卢浮宫博物馆和蓬皮杜中心之间的桥梁,它侧重于十九晚期和第二十世纪早期的艺术,坐拥着世界上最大的印象派和后印象派绘画收藏品。

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NationalMuseum of Art, Osaka

国立美术馆,大阪

After the original 1970s building wasdemolished, a new structure designed by César Pelli opened in 2004. Themajority of the museum – including its art collections – is subterranean, withonly the entrance lobby above ground. For maximum wow factor, Pelli’s studiocreated a towering intertwining glass-and-steel entrance designed to resemblereeds along a riverbank or stalks of bamboo.

在1970年代的建筑被拆除后,新建成的版本由CésaR Pelli设计并于2004开放。博物馆的大部分,包括它的艺术收藏品,都处于地下,只有入口大厅是在地面上的。最让人眼前一亮的是,Pelli的工作室创造了一个高耸的缠绕型的玻璃钢入口,形似沿河岸的芦苇或竹子。

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Guggenheim,Spain

古根海姆博物馆,西班牙

The impressive building stands on the edgeof the Nervión River in the old industrial heart of of the city, its glass andlimestone structure clad in waves of titanium. It was an immediate sensation;among its fans, the architect Philip Johnson hailed it “the greatest buildingof our time”.

这座令人印象深刻的建筑矗立在Nervión河边,该地方是城市的老工业中心,其玻璃和石灰石构成的主体被用一波一波的钛包裹。它一建成变立即引起了轰动,它的粉丝种包括建筑师菲利普·约翰逊,他称赞它是“我们的时代最伟大的建筑”。

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OscarNiemeyer Museum, Brazil

尼迈耶博物馆,巴西

The museum was opened in 2002-3 andnicknamed ‘the eye’ as it resembles a giant human eye perched on a yellowpillar. The legendary Brazilian architect who designed it (and gave it hisname) was a key figure in the modern movement; he was 95 when the building wascompleted. A 2,000 sq-ft museum space houses international art along with manyof Niemeyer’s own works.

博物馆成立于2002-2003,绰号为“眼睛”,它像一个巨大的人类的眼睛,栖息在一个黄色的支柱上。设计它的是一位传奇的巴西建筑设计师,他为这座建筑冠上了自己的名字,他在现代主义运动中是一个关键人物;当建筑完工时,他已经95岁了。这个2000平方英尺的博物馆房间里陈列着国际艺术,其中许多是Niemeyer的作品。

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BritishMuseum, London

大英博物馆,英国

The architect Robert Smirke designed thecore of the museum, which opened in 1852, in the neo-Classical style. The grandsouth entrance, with its impressive pediment and pillars, drew inspiration fromancient Greece. In 2000, Foster and Partners created a new Great Court, which,with its spectacular glass roof, transformed the museum’s inner courtyard intothe largest covered space in Europe.

建筑师Robert Smirke设计了博物馆的核心部分,该馆在1852开业,其具有新古典风格。南大门有着令人印象深刻的三角墙和柱子,其灵感来源是古希腊。在2000年,福斯特和起合作伙伴创造了一个新的大法院,它有着壮观的玻璃屋顶,他们将博物馆的内部庭院改造成为欧洲最大的内部空间。

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RoyalOntario Museum, Canada

皇家安大略博物馆,加拿大

This museum of natural history, art andculture is Canada’s largest, with over six million items in its collection. Inaddition to its original and 20th Century buildings, Studio Daniel Libeskind’snew entrance design, which opened as the Michael Lee-Chin Crystal in 2007, wasdescribed by the museum as “a distinctive new symbol for Toronto for the 21stCentury”. The complex prismatic structure of glass and aluminium on a steelframe has its detractors though – in 2009 it made number 8 on a list of ‘theworld’s ugliest buildings’.

该博物馆的自然历史,艺术和文化是加拿大首屈一指的,其拥有着六百万多件收藏品。除了它是二十世纪的独特建筑,丹尼尔·里伯斯金工作室设计的新入口,在2007年的米迦勒李秦水晶博物馆对外开放,它被描述为“多伦多二十一世纪的独特新标志”。虽然有人批评由玻璃和铝钢框架组成的复杂的棱镜结构,但是被列为2009“世界最丑建筑“第八名。

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MuseoSoumaya, Mexico City

索玛亚博物馆,墨西哥市

The private cultural institution wasestablished in 1994 and ranges across two sites – Plaza Loreto and the PlazaCarso in Mexico City. The latter, which opened in 2011, was designed by Mexicanarchitect Fernando Romero, engineered with Ove Arup and Frank Gehry. A 151ft(46m) structure clad in 16,000 hexagonal aluminium tiles, the six-floor museumcontains work predominantly from Mexico and Europe, including the largestcollection of Rodin’s works outside of France. Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg,Russia.

私营文化机构成立于1994,其横跨墨西哥城的洛雷托和卡索广场。后者是在2011对外开放的,由墨西哥建筑师Fernando Romero设计,由Ove Arup和Frank Gehry进行工程监督的。其151英尺(46米)结构是由16000六边形铝砖包裹而成,博物馆六楼的作品主要来自墨西哥和欧洲,包括Rodin在法国以外最大的作品。

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HermitageMuseum, St Petersburg, Russia

冬宫博物馆,圣彼得堡俄罗斯

One of the largest and oldest museums inthe world, the Hermitage was opened in 1764 by Empress Catherine the Great andhouses over three million pieces of art and cultural artefacts. The sprawlingstate museum complex consists of a number of buildings, including the grandgreen-and-white Winter Palace, the former home of the Russian Tsars. Thecolossal palace was designed in the main by Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli inan elaborate Baroque style.

世界上最大和最古老的博物馆——冬宫,在1764,由女皇凯瑟琳在宣布开放,其拥有超过三百万件艺术品和文物。庞大的州立博物馆由许多建筑物组成,包括宏大的绿白相间的冬宫和俄罗斯沙皇的故居。巨大的宫殿基本上是由Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli设计的巴洛克风格。

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Museumof Islamic Art, Doha

伊斯兰艺术博物馆,多哈

Opening in the Qatari capital in 2008, thismuseum was designed by the Pritzker Prize-winning architect IM Pei. At the ageof 91, Pei travelled throughout the Arab world for six months collectinginspiration for the project. The towering five-storey limestone structureperches on reclaimed land with views across the Doha waterfront and its twowings are connected by a large central courtyard. It houses a collection ofIslamic art from over 1,400 years.

于2008在卡塔尔首都开放,该馆是由普利茨凯奖得者,贝聿铭建筑师设计。91岁时,裴在阿拉伯周游了六个月,为该项目收集灵感。五层高耸的石灰岩结构矗立在多哈海滨周围的开垦地上,它的两个翅膀由一个大的中央庭院连接。它收藏着超过1400年的伊斯兰艺术品。

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VaticanMuseums, Italy

梵蒂冈博物馆,意大利

The Vatican City’s museums were opened byPope Julius II in the 16th Century; its complex contains 52 galleries and isone of the largest museums in the world. The museum’s collection of religioussculpture and painting includes works by Raphael, Titian and Caravaggio. Itsrooms include the Gallery of Maps and the Gallery of Tapestries and its verylast sala is the magnificent Sistine Chapel, its walls decorated with works byartists including Perugino and Botticelli and the vaulted ceiling painted byMichelangelo.

梵蒂冈博物馆由教皇尤利乌斯二世在16世纪宣布开放。它的建筑群包含52个画廊,是世界上最大的博物馆之一。该馆收藏着宗教雕塑和绘画,包括拉斐尔、提香和卡拉瓦乔的作品。它的房间包括地图和织锦画廊,其最后的大厅是华丽的西斯廷教堂。它的墙面上装饰着艺术家佩鲁吉诺和波提且利的作品,拱形的天花板上有着米切朗基罗的作品。


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